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Agricultural Science (All Classes)

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Agricultural Science

PLANT NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

PLANT NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES Plant nutrients are classified into two, these includes macronutrient and micronutrient.   MACRONUTRIENTS These are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in large quantities. Examples are: nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, magnesium, calcium and sulphur.   MICRONUTRIENT OR TRACE ELEMENTS These are mineral elements or nutrients required by crops in small quantities. Examples are: Zinc, Copper, boron, molybdenum, Iron, Chlorine and Manganese.   FUNCTIONS AND DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS OF PLANT NUTRIENTS S/N ELEMENT FUNCTION DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS 1. Nitrogen i.       Aids plant’s growth and reproduction ii.     Promotes vegetative and short system growth iii.   Excess Nitrogen delay maturation and fruiting iv.   Promotes chlorophyll formation v.     Necessary for synthesis of plant hormones i.           Stunted growth ii.         Yellowing of leaves iii.       Leaves tend to drop iv.       Poor formation of fruits and flowers 2. Phosphorus i.       It aid enzyme reactions ii.     It is a constituent of cell division iii.   Increases soil resistant… Read More »PLANT NUTRIENTS AND NUTRIENT CYCLES

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION These factors are grouped into three, Climatic factor Biotic factor Edaphic factor   CLIMATIC FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION Climate is the average weather condition of a place over a long period of time. The elements of climate are: rainfall, humidity, light, temperature, drought, wind, sunlight, humidity e.t.c.   RAINFALL Rainfall is defined as the release of excess condensed water vapour in the atmosphere into the earth. It determines the distribution of crops and animal. It is necessary for seed germination. Excessive rainfall leads to leaching. It helps to dissolve nutrients, making it available for the plants. It determines the types of vegetation in an area. It determines seasons in Nigeria. Insufficient rainfall causes crop failure and poor yield.   DROUGHT This is defined as lack of or insufficient rainfall in the area.   EFFECTS It causes delay in flowering and flower abortion. Poor crop establishment.… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS AFFECTING AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION

Agricultural Science

IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

IRRIGATION This is the artificial application of water to soil or land for farming purposes.   FACTORS THAT DETERMINES IRRIGATION SYSTEM Availability of water. Slope of the land. Soil type. Type of crop. Size of the farmland.   IMPORTANCE OF IRRIGATION IN CROP PRODUCTION Irrigation softens the soil for tillage operations. It provides moisture in the soil for root absorption. It reduces the amount of salt accumulated in the top soil which could be injurious to the crops. It cools the soil, thereby reducing soil, theory reducing soil temperature. It enables crops to do well. It increases crop productivity and yields. It assists in production of crops all-round the year. It helps in microbial decomposition and nutrient release to the soil. It dissolves soil nutrient for root absorption.   NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF IRRAGATION It provides humid environment which favours the buildup of pests and diseases. It encourages the spread of… Read More »IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE

Agricultural Science

SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARM STEAD

MEANING OF FARM SURVEYING Farm surveying is defined as the process of measuring and mapping out the position, topography, size and boundary of an area of farm land. It can also be defined as the process by which measuring of land is made on the farm.   IMPORTANCE OF FARM SURVEYING It helps to determine the farm land. It is useful for the preparation of feasibility studies. It ensures proper use of the farm land. It helps in proper location of the farm building. Farm maps or soil maps are useful in planning the farm stead. The results of farm survey are used for soil classification. It can be used to make projection of future yield. It can be used as collateral for loan. It can be useful for the acquisition of C of O. It can be used to determine the gradient of the farmland.   EVALUATION What is… Read More »SURVEYING AND PLANNING OF FARM STEAD

Agricultural Science

FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS

FARM MACHINERY Farm machinery includes various types of machines and implements used in the farm. These include tractor, plough, harrows, cultivators, ridgers, planter, harvesters, shellers, dryer, sprayer, and incubators TRACTOR: It is a powerful and expensive multipurpose motor vehicle used for lifting or pulling farm implements.   IMPORTANT PARTS OF THE TRACTOR The power takes off shaft (P.T.O) shaft used in drawing farm implements e.g. plough, harrow etc. The hydraulic control system which lifts mounted implements under the control. Internal combustion engine which uses diesel or petrol without spark plug. It has four wheels rubber tyres.   FUNCTIONS OF TRACTORS For transportation of farm input and outputs when the trailer is attached. It operates water pumps for irrigation or other farm purposes. Lifting of couples implement by the hydraulic system. Pulling of farm implement attached. Tilling the soil with appropriate implement attached. Planting seeds when coupled with planter. Spraying seedlings… Read More »FARM MACHINERY AND IMPLEMENTS

English Language

FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION

The five major factors which control soil formation are: climate, parent materials, topography, biotic factors and time. CLIMATE: Climate is the average weather condition of a place over long period time. The elements of climate are: temperature, rainfall, wind and pressure. Temperature: The alternating cooling and heating of rocks results in continual expansion and contract which eventually make the rock to crack and breakdown  to form Soil. Rainfall: The action of running water from rainfall causes gradual wearing away of rocks during erosion to form soil. Rain drops provide water for hydrolysis, rainfall also breaks down some parent rocks to form soil. Wind: Rocks collide during the time of high wind velocity in desert, this collision results in breakdown of rocks to form soil. Pressure: High pressure on hanging rock may cause it to fail down and break in pieces, resulting in soil formation.   PARENT MATERIALS: These are the… Read More »FACTORS OF SOIL FORMATION

Agricultural Science

SOIL

MEANING OF SOIL Soil can be defined as the unconsolidated weathered materials found in the upper most layer of the earth surface on which plants grow. It provides support and nutrients for the plants.   TYPES OF SOIL The three types of soil are; Sandy Soil, Clay Soil and Loamy Soil.   SANDY SOIL A soil is said to be sandy if the proportion of sand particles in a sample of the soil is high. The particles are mainly quartz (SiO2).   PROPERTIES OF SANDY SOIL Sandy soil is coarse, grained and gritty. It is loose with large pore spaces. It absorbs and loses water easily. It is not sticky when wet and cannot form a cast or ribbon. It is well aerated with low water holding capacity. Percolation in sandy soil is high but capillarity is low. Sandy soil heats up easily during the day and cools down quickly… Read More »SOIL

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE

MEANING OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE Agricultural insurance is the insurance policy which provides compensation to famers for losses suffered. For example, the loss of their crops due to natural disasters such as hail, drought and floods or the loss of revenue due to declines in the prices of agricultural commodities. Insurance is one of the tools that farmers and other stakeholders can use to manage risks that are too large for them to bear/manage on their own. Part of the risk is transferred to another, who takes it in return for a fee (or premium)   IMPORTANCE OF AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE Agricultural insurance plays an important role in simulating investment in agriculture and in stabilizing famers’ income. Insurance can assist farmers in accessing new opportunities by improving their ability to borrow either in cash or in kind as credit facilities. In doing so, farmers may potentially experience safer and possible higher returns… Read More »AGRICULTURAL INSURANCE

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL FINANCING

Meaning of Agricultural Finance Agricultural finance is the act of acquisition and use of capital in agribusiness. It deals with the demand for and supply of fund order to carry out various projects on the field of agriculture. The main objective of financing is to increase and other productive factors, stocks available to farmers so as to expand production.   Meaning of Agricultural Credit Agricultural credit refers to a refundable loan granted to a farmer to enable him improve in his farming activities. it can also be defined as loan granted to a farmer by credit lending agencies for agricultural purposes.   Types of Farm Credit There are three major classes of farm credit: Short term credit: This is a productive credit which the borrower is expected to pay back within a year. It may be used to purchase items that can easily be used up with optimum output. Examples… Read More »AGRICULTURAL FINANCING

Agricultural Science

ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

This is the introduction of semen into the reproductive tract of the female by a method other than natural mating. The semen containing the spermatozoa are carefully handled,diluted and stored in freezer at a temperature of -1960C in liquid nitrogen until it is required for use. For artificial insemination to succeed, the following must be ensured Viable spermatozoan must be used. Heat period must been observed. Special handling of spermatozoan because of short life span. Tactical introduction technique.   Method of collection of semen Artificial Vagina Massage method Electro-ejaculation. Recovery of semen from the Vagina after service.   EVALUATION What is artificial Insemination? State the methods of semen collection.   Advantages of artificial Insemination It is easier and less expensive than natural mating since the farmer is saved the expense of maintaining a herd of animals. Easier and cheaper to import semen than whole animal. Larger extent of using one… Read More »ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION

Agricultural Science

ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT

MEANING OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT Animal improvement refers to the ways of developing and breeding only those animals that show the greatest merit under consideration such as good feed conversion, growth rate, disease resistance, egg size, etc. It also involves the upgrading of existing (local) breeds as a result of some undesirable characteristics which they possess.   AIMS OF ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT To produce animals that can give high yield or products in form of meat, egg, milk etc. To produce animals that can provide high quality of products such as yolk size, shell hardness etc. To produce animals with high feed conversion efficiency. To produce animals with high growth rate. To produce animals with early maturity. To produce animals which can adapt to climatic/environmental conditions. To produce animals that are resistant to parasites and diseases.   EVALUATION What is animal improvement? State five aims of animal improvement.   PROCESS/METHODS OF ANIMAL… Read More »ANIMAL IMPROVEMENT

Agricultural Science

FISH POND

A fish pond is an artificial body of water in which fishes are reared for commercial purposes. There are various yes of fish pond. It is a confined body of water where fishes are raised under controlled conditions. Fish can also be raised in plastics, fiber stars and wooden rafts. There are three types of pond: Earthen pond Concrete pond Plastic pond   EARTHEN POND This involves digging the soil usually clay (25 %clay) to a depth ranging from 0.5- 1.0 m at shallow end and 1.5 – 2.0m at the drain end to raise fish. Pond can be of any shape as long as it is well constructed. However rectangular or square shapes are considered the best. This is usually practicable in swamping environment. This rule away the problem of water maintenance as there is natural flow in and out of water in the pond   (i) Excavated Pond… Read More »FISH POND

Agricultural Science

FISH FARMING

FISH FARMING Fish farming (pisciculture) involves raising selected fish species commercially underscientifically controlled conditions in enclosed water bodies such as ponds, lakes etc where they live, feed, breed and are harvested for man’s use. Common fish species reared commercially includes salmon, tilapia, catfish, crab etc. Fishery: This is the study of fish and other aquatic animals. Fish live in water bodies (e.g. ponds, lakes, oceans, seas, rivers), respire with the gills and possess fins for swimming. They are cold blooded animals because their body temperature changes with a change in the environment.   EVALUATION Define fishery. Mention five examples of cold blooded animals.   IMPORTANCE OF FISH FARMING Food: Fish and other aquatic organisms are used mainly as human food. Fish flesh is regarded highly for containing first class animal proteins, vitamins and many mineral salts and other chemical substances that are needed to keep the human body healthy and… Read More »FISH FARMING

Agricultural Science

AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

Agricultural extension is the process, system or service which assists farmers or farm people through educational procedures in improving farming methods and techniques. In other words, Agricultural extension is the process whereby the beneficial products of research are taken to the farmers and the problems of farmers taken to research institutions for solution.   Agricultural extension is an informal out-of-school voluntary agricultural educational program that involves the spread out dissemination of information on improvement in agriculture from researchers to farmers   OBJECTIVES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION To educate farmers and enable them abandon less productive traditional ways of farming for improved and scientific farming techniques To help improve the standard of living of the rural dwellers To help identify proper marketing channel To help farmers access and supervise agricultural loans To link farmers with research institutes To help accelerate the development of rural area   PRINCIPLES OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION Extension education… Read More »AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

Agricultural Science

ANIMAL NUTRITION (MALNUTRITION)

MALNUTRITION IN FARM ANIMALS Malnutrition is said to occur when a ration (amount of feed provided to an animal per day) does not provide all the food nutrients(carbohydrate, protein,fats and oils, vitamins, minerals, water and other feed additives) in adequate quantities. Those nutrients wanting are said to be deficient which eventually results in nutritional disease.   Nutritional deficiency is therefore defined as a disease condition which emanates from inadequate nutrition. It is indicated by specific symptoms when particular nutrients are absent or unavailable in the diet.   The table below shows some nutritional disease, their causes, symptoms and how they can be corrected.   MALNUTRITION DISEASES OF ANIMALS MALNUTRITION DISEASE CAUSES SYMPTOMS CORRECTION Ricket(Osteomalacia) Lack of Ca,Pand VitaminD Flexible and curve bones,soft egg shell Add fish meal,bone meal or Oyster shell Perosis or Slipped tendon. Lack of choline,folicacid,Ca,P in diet. Chicken lie down on their Kneel. Add Vitamin B Co… Read More »ANIMAL NUTRITION (MALNUTRITION)

Agricultural Science

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT OF RUMINANT [CATTLE] Cattle Breeds of cattle Terms used in cattle management Characteristics of cattle System of rearing cattle Feeding of cattle Management of cattle   Cattle are ruminant animal (they have complex or complicated stomach structures). Cattle have hollow horns and hoofs. They are reared for meat, milk, hide and skin, manure and draught animals for farm work. They belong to the family bovidae and genus Bos; humped cattle are Bosindicushumpless are Bostaurus.   BREEDS OF CATTLE Breeds of cattle can be grouped into three. These are Beef cattle: They can produce good quality meat SokotoGudali,  Red Bororo, Kuri, N’dama, Muturu, Keteku etc. Dairy cattle: They are reared mainly to produce milk. White Fulani, Jersey, Ayshere, etc. Dual purpose cattle: They can produce meat and milk Muturu, Wadara (Shuwa) etc.   TERMS USED IN CATTLE MANAGEMENT Bull: an adult male cattle             Cow: an adult female cattle Calf: a… Read More »LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

Agricultural Science

LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

MANAGEMENT OF A MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL (PIGS) Terms used in pigs management Breeds of pigs Characteristics of pigs System of rearing pigs Housing, feeding and hygiene Management of pigs Pigs are non-ruminant animals in the genus sus, within even-toed ungulate family suidae. They are primarily reared for meat.   TERMS USED IN PIGS MANAGEMENT Boar: a mature male pig                          Sow: a mature female pig Piglet: young or baby pig farrowed          Barrow: a castrated male pig Pork: pig’s meat                                        In-sow: pregnant sow Dry sow: a sow that is not pregnant         Fatheners: pigs reared for meat Farrowing: act of parturition in pigs        Lard: pig fat Gilt: mature female pig that has not reproduced or has only reproduced once   BREEDS OF PIGS Hampshire                        Yorkshire (Largewhite)           Poland china               Landrace Berkshire               Large black                             West African dwarf     Duroc   CHARACTERISTICS OF PIGS Pork is a good source of protein It has a short gestation period… Read More »LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT

Agricultural Science

ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Environmental physiology refers to the effects of the environment on the growth and performance of farm animals. It is the study of the environment in relation to the response of farm animals. The effects could be high or low in nature. Moderation is the target for optimum growth and performance.   CLIMATE Climate refers to the atmospheric condition of a place over a period of time. It is marked by rainfall, wind, temperature, humidity, sunlight etc.   RAINFALL High rainfall increases pests like tsetse flies, and diseases High rainfall causes chilling of young ones High rainfall does favor rearing of dairy animals Extremes of rainfall do not favor growth of grasses for foods   CONTROL OF RAINFALL Shelter Rain break Drainage channels Building orientation   WIND Wind aids the spread of air-borne diseases e.g. tuberculosis; and death eventually Moderate wind velocity promotes good ventilation. Scare animals producing undesirable level of… Read More »ENVIRONMENTAL PHYSIOLOGY

Agricultural Science

REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

PROCESSES OF EGG FORMATION IN POULTRY The egg in poultry is partly formed in the ovary and in the oviduct. At ovulation the ovum carrying the yolk is released by the ovary into the oviduct through the funnel called infundibulum. Fertilization takes place in the infundibulum where the egg spends 15 minutes and moves into the magnum. In the magnum, part of the egg white (albumen) and the chalaza are secreted round the yolk. The egg stays for 3 hours in the magnum and moves into the isthmus where the two shell membranes are formed. The egg stays for 1 hour 15 minutes in the isthmus and moves into the uterus where it remains for 18 – 21 hours and the egg shell is formed from calcium carbonate. Mineral solutions are also added to the egg before it moves into the vagina whereit remains for 1 – 15 minutes before… Read More »REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

Agricultural Science

REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

Reproduction is the process that gives rise to young in farm animals; it is the ability of animals to birth young. This process starts when the animal is sexually matured. Time of sexual maturity varies between animals, in cattle it takes up to 15 months, in goat and sheep about 6 months, poultry about 18 weeks etc. The following terms are associated with reproduction in farm animals.   OESTRUS CYCLE This is the interval from the end of one heat period to the beginning of another. It is under the influence of hormone called oestrogen.It is the sexual cycle that occurs in all female animals if the animal is not pregnant. The period varies among farm animals: Cow – 20 – 21 days Ewe – 17 – 21 days Sow – 14 – 28 days Doe (goat) – 17 – 21 days Doe (rabbit) – spontaneous   OVULATION This is… Read More »REPRODUCTION IN FARM ANIMALS

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