CLASSIFICATION OF AFRICAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
- CHORDOPHONES: African stringed instruments include harp like the Hausaguluna, lutes likegoje,molo,garaya, kukuma,gurmiharp, raft zither of the Hausas called moloand banjo.
- MEMBRANOPHONES: African drums include Yoruba gangan ,iyailu,omele, dundun, atumpum of Akans, Yoruba gbedu, bata,IgboIgbaEze , IgbaEgwu , IgbaMmonwu, Hausa tombarikaage and kotsoko,NsingObong of Ibibios and Efiksetc.
- IDIOPHONES: African instruments classified as idiophone include shaken and struck instruments like metal gong with local names like Igbo ogene, Yoruba agogo, Hausa dawar, sekere ,rattle ,thumb piano , pot drum , medium slit drum etc.
- AEROPHONES: African instruments classified under aerophone include African flute, Hausa kaakaki ,oja etc.
- State four categories of musical instruments.
- State one African musical instrument for each category of musical instrument.
TYPES OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
- WESTERN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
They are usually under three main headings such as plucked,bowed and hammered instruments.
(a) STRING INSTRUMENTS: The stringed instruments produce sound by the vibration of stretched strings and are into three groups : plucked , bowed and hammered .
(i) PLUCKED INSTRUMENTS: These include harp, guitar, lute, zither, banjo, lyre and mandolin. The sound is produced by plucking the strings with the fingers or with a plectrum.
(ii) BOWED INSTRUMENTS: These include violin, viola, cello, double bass .The sound is usually produced by bowing strings with the bow while the pitches are “stopped “with the fingers of the left hand on the finger board.
(iii) HAMMERED INSTRUMENTS: These are instruments whose sound is produced by hammered strings. e.g. piano
- WIND INSTRUMENTS: These are usually divided into two main classes such as wood and brass. The sound production is by the vibration of air in the tube either directly by the player or indirectly by bellows. The pitch of the sound produced depends on the length of the tube.
(a) WOOD WIND INSTRUMENTS: The musical instruments in this family are flute, oboe, piccolo, recorder, corAnglais , clarinet, bassoon and English horn. They are played by blowing.
(b) BRASSINSTRUMENTS:The brass instruments include trumpet, cornet, trombone, euphonium, tuba, and French horn. Saxophones can be grouped in this family, although they are not regarded purely as orchestral instruments. They are played by blowing.
- PERCUSSION:These are instruments in which sound is produced by being either directly beaten with two sticks or with the hands, struck and shaken by the player. They are either definite pitched or indefinite pitched instruments .There are many instruments in this group like drums(snare drum),bass drum , timpani (kettle drum), cymbals ,bells, celesta ,triangle ,gong, tambourine ,xylophone.
- AFRICAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS :African musical instruments are a wide
range of drums, rattles , slit gongs , and double bells ,different types of harps like instruments such as the kora as well as fiddles ,many kinds of xylophone and (string like harp) lamella phone such as the mbira, and different types of instruments like flutes and trumpet.
- State the four types of musical instruments.
- Write short notes on any two types of musical instruments.
GENERAL EVALUATION/REVISION QUESTION
- What is script?
- Explain the term lettering.
- Define sculpture in the round and relief sculpture
- What is unity?
- What is the difference between monophony and polyphony?
- Explain any five elements of music.
- Which of the following is an aerophone? (a) Trumpet (b) Guitar (c) Bell (d) Viola
- All stringed instruments are called ____ (a) aerophone (b) idiophone (c) membranophone (d) chordophone
- Which one of the following is a bowed instrument? (a) Violin (b) Xylophone (c) Trumpet (d) Cymbal
- A clarinet is a transposing instrument. (a) True (b) False (c) Maybe (d) Not sure
- The musical instrument of the idiophone category is played by ____ (a) shaking (b) plucking (c) blowing (d) striking
- What are musical instruments?
- Mention two local musical instruments in Nigeria.
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