MEANING OF ACCIDENT
An accident is a sudden or unplanned situation in which people are injured and property is damaged. There are many types of accidents with different causes.
Types of transport accidents and their causes Types of transport accidents and their causes
1 Road transport accidents: These happen on the road, especially when drivers, motorcyclists or pedestrians are careless. Road accidents may also occur because the roads are bad. Sometimes accidents occur when road users are drunk and cannot think clearly. Neglect of road signs also causes road accidents.
2 Air crash: An aeroplane may drop from the air suddenly, thereby destroying lives and property. This is called an air crash. It can happen if the aeroplane is faulty or if the pilot is careless. A very bad weather or military attack may also cause air accidents or crashes.
3 Marine accidents: These happen when a canoe, a boat or a ship travelling on water capsizes or sinks. Marine accidents can occur for the following reasons:
- a) If a canoe or boat carries too many passengers.
- b) If a ship develops a fault, and it is not repaired early.
- c) If the sailors on a ship are careless.
4 Rail accidents: An accident occurs if a train derails, that is, it is off the rail track. This may be caused by faulty engine. Sometimes trains collide (hit each other) due to over speeding or carelessness.
Other forms of accidents and their causes
There are other forms of accidents apart from transport ones. The accidents at home are called domestic accidents while other accidents may occur in school, at work or in other places. Such accidents are listed below, with their causes.
If someone is hurt by fire, we say he/she has suffered burns. Burns can be caused through the following: fire for cooking, a bush fire, a hot iron, a burning house, a burning car, a kerosene lamp or stove. Ignorance and carelessness are the main causes of accidents through such fire.
Scalds are injuries or wounds sustained by heat from boiling water, hot oil, or any hot liquid or steam. The skin may peel or become black when one is scalded.
Bruises can occur if one suffers a fall or a blow on any part of the body, or when the surface of the body rubs against a hard or rough object. For instance, children often suffer bruises on their knees or hands when they fall.
Bites are cuts on the body which can be caused by animals, such as dogs, snakes or insects such as mosquitoes. It is important to give immediate help to anyone who has had burns, bruises or bites or who has suffered scalding before taking him or her to the hospital for treatment.
First aid for accident victims
The first aid for burns, scalds, bruises and bites is as follows:
Burns and scalds
1 Hold the victim by the unhurt parts of his body.
2 Use a clean cloth to cover the affected part.
3 Then take the victim to the hospital to see a doctor for further treatment
1 Make the victim sit or lie down in a comfortable position.
2 Soak a clean piece of cloth in cold water and place it on the affected part of his body; or if possible, put some ice cubes in a towel and place the towel on the affected part to reduce pain and swelling.
3 Then take the person to the hospital for further treatment.
1 Use a piece of cloth or bandage or any other material immediately available, to tie the affected part of the body, just above the affected area. This is to prevent the poison from the bite from flowing to the heart. This kind of treatment is very good for snake bite.
2 Wash off the poison around the wound with soap and water.
3 Then take the person to see a doctor.
Prevention of such accident
Each accident can be prevented if we do the following:
1 Only mature, qualified people should drive vehicles (i.e., motors, boats, trains and planes).
2 Vehicles should be in good order before driving them.
3 Drivers should obey transport rules.
4 The government should repair our roads and rail tracks.
1 Avoid filling your lanterns and stoves with kerosene when they are already burning.
2 Avoid putting fuel in your car tank when the car engine is still working.
3 Avoid playing with candlelight or fire.
1 Be careful with hot water, hot oil and other hot liquids or steam.
2 Do not go near them if you have nothing to do with them.
1 Avoid sharp objects like sticks which may hurt you.
2 Avoid playing in places where there are broken bottles, nails or stones.
3 Wear your sandals or shoes always.
4 You must be careful when moving around or playing, in order not to fall down or brush your skin against a rough surface.
1 Avoid playing with dogs.
2 Avoid staying in dark places and corners.
3 Keep your home and surroundings tidy to ward off snakes and scorpions.
A sign shows or tells us something. Road signs show road users the kinds of roads on which they are travelling, what is happening on the road, what should happen on the road, and how road users should behave on the road.
Strategies & Activities
Step 1: Teacher revises the previous topic.
Step 2: Teacher introduces the new topic.
Step3: Teacher explains the new topic.
Step4: Teacher welcomes pupils questions.
Step5: Teacher evaluates the pupils
Assessment & Evaluation
1 defines accident.
2 mention different types of accident and their causes.
3 mention different types of first aid treatment to be given to various accident victims.
4 explain the meaning of burns, scalds and bruises.
5 mention at least three ways of preventing burns, scalds, bruises and bites
A Choose the best answers for the following questions.
1 A situation in which people are injured and property damaged without anyone planning it is called ________. A accident B incident C situation
2 A type of accident that occurs when drivers and motorcyclists or pedestrians are careless is ____________________. A air crash B road accident C rail accident
3 Accident that occurs at home are called _____________.
A rail accident B domestic accidents C air crash
4 If a train derails and goes off the train track, it is called ____________________.
A road accident B rail accident C accident
5 When someone is hurt by fire, he will suffer ____________.
A burns B scald C heat
6 Injuries sustained by heat from boiling water or hot oil is called _____________.
A burns B scald C heat
7 If someone rubs his body against a hard or rough object, he will have _______.
A burns B bruises C bites
8 Cuts on the body caused by animals such as dogs, snakes or mosquitoes are
A bites B bruises C heat
9 The help given to anyone who has burns, bruises or scald before being taken to the hospital is ____________.
A second aid B first aid C medical treatment
10 After first aid, a victim who suffers burn, scald or bruises should be taken to the
_______________ for further treatment
A home B hospital C school
11 Snake bite on the body will cause poison to the body.
A Yes B No C Sometimes
12 Snake bites can lead to death of the person if the victim does not get quick medical attention.
A Yes B No C Never
13 Filling your lantern or stove with kerosene when it is already burning is dangerous and may lead to _______.
A burns B scalds C bruise
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